Lessons from an Application + Tips from Winston Churchill

“Mostly it is loss which teaches us about the worth of things.”

Arthur Schopenhauer (Parerga and Paralipomena)

My girlfriend recently emailed me a potential dream job that she thought I was the perfect fit for. I was elated to discover that renown author and habit-guru, James Clear, is hiring a podcast writer/researcher and producer. Given my nerdy passion for self-improvement and audio engineering, I figured this would be a fantastic opportunity to pursue.

I’ve always hated applications, but this one has taught me a few lessons that I think are worth sharing. Some came from the application itself, others came from my overachieving spirit taking on unnecessary challenges.

Future Opportunities are Difficult to Imagine

A part of the application that made me think was when Clear asked the applicant how much money they expect to be paid for the position. I know I’m fairly new to the “real world,” so to speak, but the idea of getting handed a blank check to do meaningful and potentially life changing work is so beautiful to me.

How crazy is it that there’s this job that appeared over the recent years that has no established monetary value. Then I got to thinking…how many other unforeseen opportunities are coming? How many other jobs will come that will give people the opportunity to write their own checks? It’s so wild to think about the seemingly boundless opportunities that come with our rapid technological growth. Podcast writer/researcher/producer was not a popular job just a few short years ago, but now there are people who will pay handsomely for someone with those unique set of skills.

After seeing this, I see that it’s so important to focus on developing skills that interest us because future opportunities are difficult to imagine and perhaps one day a well-paying and flexible job will look for someone with those particular set of skills in that particular combination. In a world of niches and specialization, we need to find new ways to make ourselves relevant and it seems like cultivating our inclinations is our best bet.

Modes of Growth

When I looked at my website, my writing, and resume, I was unsatisfied and embarrassed. I was so frustrated because I felt burnout creeping in and I couldn’t see any ways to make my situation better. I took a step back and saw this as an opportunity to level up everything, so even if I don’t get the job, the energy dedicated to this application is worthwhile. I had to stop with experimenting and work on presenting. Off with Experimentation Mode and on with Presentation Mode.

Once I switched gears, I was working harder than ever before. Suddenly, I knew what had to be done and saw multiple ways to get to where I needed to go. This was an important realization in a time of burnout and complacency. Once I switched my mode of growth, I had a whole new set of problems to tackle. I was so inspired that I made plans that will take way longer than the application window to complete, but that’s totally fine.

Being the nerd I am, I started to wonder why I had this newfound energy. I wanted to know what exactly broke me out of my burnout and complacency. I was thinking about Big Sean and when he goes into “Album Mode,” he’s focused, setting his intentions, attentions, and energy all in one place. That got me thinking…we all have different modes to our outward development. We don’t necessarily have to have “Album Mode” or “Presenting Mode,” but having different creative “modes” helps us switch to the perspectives we need to take action.

Paying Attention Paid Off

I kept stopping the application to work on the musical pillar of my online city and realized that I kept wanting to dedicate my energy to myself and my own endeavors. I’m not saying I’ll be James Clear, but James had to dedicate a huge amount of energy in order to create the body of work he has today.

If I’m naturally gravitating towards working on my own endeavors, then I ought to get out of my own way. For a while I wondered if I was paying proper attention to my own patterns and behaviors, but now I have another example as to why paying attention to our own behavior is worthwhile. When I made the switch from working on someone else’s plan, to working on my own, I felt less anxious and stressed. The application didn’t cause me a huge amount of stress, but it does feel a hell of a lot better to work on my own contribution to humanity.

In the end, I decided not to submit an application but the lessons I got from it felt like a good trade.

-Future opportunities are difficult to imagine, so focus on what keeps you interested and useful.

-Have different modes of growth to help change perspectives in times of burnout or complacency.

-Pay attention to what I’m subconsciously trying to do and get out of my own way if it aligns with my values.

How to Be a Better Leader: Tips from Winston Churchill

One of the questions on the application was asking us how we would handle writing a practice podcast transcript on the topic “How to Be a Better Leader: Tips from Winston Churchill.” I thought this was an excellent question to ask because it gave Clear a clear idea (no pun intended) of how this new hiree will work once everything is said and done.

When I read The 4-Hour Workweek (which is on my Must Read List), Tim suggested to have a preliminary task set up for potential hires to see how each person would work. This way you can evaluate their workflow, how quickly they can complete the project, a sample of their work, and if you like working with them in general.

Given how I saw the question, I figured the best thing to do would be to actually write out the transcript and detail my workflow. Since I decided to not follow through with the application, I didn’t finish writing the transcript, but I did do a good amount of research for it and learned some valuable lessons. Without further adieu (in a much more casual manner) here are some lessons I learned from Winston Churchill on how to be a better leader.

Never ever stop.

“If you’re going through Hell, keep going.”

Winston Churchill (1874-1965)

I’ll start with one of his most popular quotes. Churchill was no stranger to situations akin to Hell. He participated in many wars as a soldier and a Prime Minister. War can be seen as close to Hell as we can get and Churchill had experience with it on the front lines as well as being in charge of millions of lives. On top of that, the guy lived to the ripe ol’ age of 90! If you’ve read some of my other posts, you know that I truly believe life is suffering and to reject that suffering is to reject life itself, so we must do everything we can to learn how to deal with that and other tragedies of life. I talk a little bit about this in my post Proclivity for Comfort. Since Churchill lived for so long, it’s safe to assume that the man has seen the innate hardships of life, which I believe can also be akin to Hell. I believe it’s safe to say that Churchill knows Hell and how to get through it. Keep going. If things get hard, keep going. If things aren’t hard, they will be. Plan for the worst and keep going.

On a slightly different note, I was also reading Austin Kleon’s third book, Keep Going, which is a solid book on how to stay creative in good times and bad. I’m pretty sure Kleon didn’t reference Churchill, but I want I mention this too since this week’s post is more about lessons I’ve learned over the last week. Kleon offers many different ways to stay creative, but the most influential idea for me was to make gifts. Basically, when you’re in a creative slump, make gifts to get in touch with your gift. When you think of creating something of value for another person, we see tons of new ways to utilize our talents.

Persistence will conquer strength, intelligence, talent and hard work. Without persistence, we are nothing. Being strong, smart, and talented can give us a leg up, but someone with more persistence will be the champion.

I feel like Churchill’s advice to keep going is amazingly perfect and simple, but to take it a step further, we should look for specific methods to keep going. Persistence is the goal, finding the methods to get there is our task. Excellent for leadership, excellent for conducting ourselves powerfully in the world.

Intentionality is for the strong.

“I like things to happen, and if they don’t happen, I like to make them happen.”

Winston Churchill (1874-1965)

Churchill has so many quotes, but a common thread between a lot of them is his reverence for intentionality. In a phrase, Churchill believed that people want things to happen, but don’t try to make them happen. He wanted to participate in life, not just observe it. He suggests that great leaders will bring out what they want into the world despite other forces working against them. The good leader delivers results, on purpose.

What comes with intentionality is confidence. When someone knows themselves as someone who can bring about their own will into the world, then they are confident, especially in times of uncertainty. Leaders view themselves as being able to impose their will on the world and NOT the other way around. Leaders have an Internal Locus of Control. Now, this isn’t to say that we should just do whatever we please and force others to act how we’d like, this is simple a mindset to approach potential problems from. When we are intentional, we build confidence, and when we’re confidence, we build intentionality. The combination of these traits gives us a backbone, and are way less likely to fold under pressure.

Pick your battles.

“You will never get to the end of the journey if you stop to shy a stone at every dog that barks.”

Winston Churchill (1874-1965)

This is similar to intentionality, because fighting every battle you come across, or stopping to shy a stone at every dog that barks, is not intentional at all. Getting distracted by ever disturbance you’ll come across will eventually stop you completely. Some things are worth ignoring or letting go. A good leader knows when to move on. A good leader knows when to quit. However, when the time does come for a fight a good leader must know how to conduct himself in battle, be it physical, verbal, or mental. We can’t give our attention to the barking dogs, for they are just beats who follow their lowly urges. These animals cannot see what we see and therefore their judgment cannot be taken into consideration. Haters gon hate.

Move beyond the failure.

“Success consists of going from failure to failure without loss of enthusiasm.”

Winston Churchill (1874-1965)

Churchill was big on failing early and failing often. I’m not surprised because Churchill was a smart guy. I talk about The Power of Failure a lot because it is the basis for learning. Churchill, without all the modern research on learning, understood that you have to be willing to fail again and again in order to achieve something of significance.

There is no other way to heaven except through death. We must be willing to sacrifice the part of ourselves that is wrong and inadequate in order to make room for the part of ourselves that is correct and competent. Learning that we’re wrong hurts and leads to suffering, but if we can willingly confront that part of our lives then we can fasttrack our abilities to learn and develop skills. Fail all the time, but don’t let it take you down. Excellent leaders are so because they have learned how to be.

We are never done.

“Success is not final, failure is not fatal; it is the courage to continue that counts.”

Winston Churchill (1874-1965)

This also ties into never ever stopping. Persistence is what will bring us to the promiseland, so to speak, but what comes with persistence is the assumption that there is more that lies ahead.

It makes sense that Churchill thought this way, given the events that he lived through. He saw the end of WWI, the war to end all wars, just to see the beginning of WWII. He saw the futility in trying to end the problem of problems. Our success are only successes for now. Our failures are only failures for now. He understood what matters in the face of this absurdity, to develop ourselves to have the courage to continue.

This fascinated me for a while. I couldn’t understand why someone would not want to try to solve the meta-problem (that problems exist) and would rather focus their energy in building the courage to keep fighting, but then it hit me. Success, fulfillment, the peak human experience is not defined by what we are aiming in the earthly sense. Aiming at”worldly” outcomes yields a temporary release, but aiming at virtues gives us a whole new set of skills. Churchill switches the conversation from aiming towards vaguely defined earthly success to aiming towards the virtues. This gives us the ability to contend with existence with a whole new, and more effective, arsenal. Success is a journey. Whether we failed or succeeded yesterday, it doesn’t matter. The truth is, we must do it again today.


“He listens well who takes notes.”

Dante Alighieri (1265 – 1321)


I like to keep in mind that no one way of taking notes is the best way overall. Notes are best used for recording information and some of these methods can double as fantastic study tools, but I don’t recommend making notes as a form of studying. Some methods will be better for certain situations and it’s up to us to decide what’s best for ourselves. These are a few methods to add to your arsenal. The best part of having access to different method is being able to combine them with each other to make your own unique method. Remember, you know yourself best when it comes to your learning and what works for you. Try out a few of these popular methods and tweak/modify them to fit you to get the most out of this.


The simplest method to take notes. Good for lectures or textbooks. You start with main ideas listed as a bullet point then supporting details will be listed under that. Eventually, you will have an organized system of key ideas. This blog post was originally designed using the outline method!

Outlining has its perks but be aware of thoughtless recording. Sometimes when we’re outlining we tend to write down non-crucial information, which takes cognitive resource away from more high-yield concepts. It’s easy to mindlessly copy everything the professor is saying without internalizing it and putting in the effort to learn the material.

This is an excellent method for taking notes on a laptop if your class allows for that. I did my fair share of handwritten outline notes in high school, then in college I typed most of my notes outline style in my humanities classes. I don’t recommend this style for math and physical science classes but it’s great for other classes like history or psychology.


  • Great if a teacher provides an outline where the readings contain many clear headings and sub-headings
  • Results in well-organized notes
  • Indentations and groupings show relationships between information
  • Main points/headings can be used as active recall study questions


  • This system is hard to use if the lecture is moving too fast
  • Permits Thoughtless Recording
  • Must be careful to maintain organization

Mind Mapping

This method is great for visualizing large amounts of information. You can also use mind mapping as a form of active recall. So it’s a great tool to use when first studying a new subject. Mind mapping can be a way for you to write down everything you know without having to write paragraphs on paragraphs.

To use mind mapping you want to start by writing the overarching topic in the center of your paper and put a circle around it. Then write down words that are related to that topic by branching out. Then flesh out those branched words with more words. Eventually you will have a giant web of concepts/topics/and words that will all be related and the relations will be very easy to see.

I don’t recommend this method for taking notes in class but their great for reviewing and getting an idea of how much you know about a topic. Mind maps shine brightest when we are scoping the subject. That is when we ask ourselves how much we know about something before we start studying. It gives us a frame to hang the new information on when we learn something new, which helps with information retention. Mind mapping can build knowledge frameworks, which are powerful for understanding complex systems.


  • Great visual aid
  • Fantastic for recording ideas when brainstorming
  • Great method for less structured lectures
  • Engages multiple sense when we learn which improves information retention


  • Not suitable for all learning situations
  • High distraction potential
  • Time consuming
  • Extra supplies required
  • Details can be easily missed

The Boxing Method

This method involves taking related notes and organizing them into boxes to get a better idea of which concepts are related and which ones aren’t. Typically we would write all of the notes from our session, be it lectures or textbook reading, and organize the notes into boxes later. An iPad or other tablet with a note-taking app, like Notability, would probably be best for this method but you could also write your notes and rewrite them in boxes later. This can help with learning the relations between different ideas and focusing on one idea at a time.


  • Easy to see the relationships between details
  • Keeps notes organized
  • Good for textbooks or organized lectures


  • Not great for disorganized lectures
  • More nuanced connections aren’t easily represented

The Slides Method

In college, there’s a common technique to take notes on PowerPoints where students will write down anything that is not included in the PowerPoint. College professors will often post their lectures online and students will print them out before class with the intention to use them as notes.

To be honest, this is a pretty lazy way to take notes but it can also be incredibly efficient. Since most of the information is already recorded for you, the majority of your energy can be spent paying attention to what the professor is actually saying. Instead of focusing on writing down everything the professor says, you can just write down the facts that are not included on the slides. Just be weary that the information that you do not write down still must be consolidated in some fashion, so try to make sure that you spend time after class accommodating those concepts.

Do not let the laziness take over! Be careful with this method, it can lead to a lot of information being overlooked.


  • Most of the information is already recorded
  • You can focus on what the professor is saying
  • Won’t miss key concepts


  • Encourages passive learning
  • Small details are not as easily recorded
  • Could decrease engagement in class

Cornell Notes

Originating from Cornell University, this is probably the most famous note taking system consequently making it the most misused note taking system. In order for it to work, like most things, it must be used properly. This system was designed to help us create an efficient way to review our notes after our lectures and properly increase retention.

To use this method properly we divide our notes into three distinct sections.

  1. The question column – this section is to contain questions that are answered in our note-taking column and are designed to be the questions that we want to use when reviewing time comes along. Usually these questions will cover main ideas within the lecture, but sometimes they can cover specifics also.
  2. The note-taking column – this is where the bulk of our notes will be. We can use any method to take notes here. Most people typically use the outlining method. This is where we would look to find the answers of our questions if we aren’t able to answer them during our review phase.
  3. The summary column – this section will be at the end of our notes. To get the most out of the Cornell method its best to take 2-5 minutes at the end of a lecture to summaries the main points to remember. This gives us a great resource to look back on later to find out what this set of notes contains but also gives us an opportunity for active recall practice to help with retention. If we’re going to use Cornell notes, it’s imperative to do this section, the retention we get just by spending 2-5 minutes writing the summary saves us hours in studying later!


  • Organized on multiple levels
  • Doubles as a great review tool
  • Encourages active learning


  • Summary and questions require more effort
  • The note-taking column has limited space on a standard piece of paper

The Flow Method

Developed by Scott Young, a writer best known for going through MIT’s computer science curriculum in just one year. He claims that our brains store information in unique ways that do not mimic the way we write them in our notes and in order to make effective notes, we must record information the way that our brains encode it. The question would then be, how do we know how our brain will store information? The answer would be that we write our notes however we see fit, in a new creative way. By doing it this way, our notes will most resemble how we make sense of the information in our heads. Making note-taking a creative process will help the information find a nice home in our mind. The Flow Method is based on 3 principles, simplify, visualize, and make connections.

The Flow Method has many different forms and that’s what makes this method difficult to perfect. I do not recommend this method for all subjects, but it would be best for reviewing in detail-dense classes like anatomy, physiology, or biochemistry.

To effectively implement the flow method we can do a few things to get started:

  • Use arrows to connect terms and ideas
  • Write new concepts in your own words and relate them to things you already understand, even things that aren’t related to the new concepts
  • Create new metaphors to explain the ideas
  • Draw pictures and funny doodles to represent new information
  • Create flow charts or algorithms to represent how the new concepts relate to the big picture
  • Capture the information in a pyramid or hierarchy


  • Simple if done correctly
  • Captures complex and nonlinear ideas easily
  • Great for detail dense subjects
  • Creative process


  • Requires understanding of your own mind
  • Has the potential to be disorganized

The Charting Method

Taking notes helps with the learning process, but reviewing and studying should be done with active recall. Some of these methods are great for active recall, while some require some modifications. The charting method is a general term for organizing information in a chart. The chart can look like a box with columns like this:

Or a venn diagram or T-Chart like these:

Charting is fantastic for capturing and organizing high yield information. A good chart will have all the pertinent information you need to know without bogging you down with extraneous facts. Making charts or recreating them from scratch can be a fantastic form of active recall as well.


  • Reduces amount of writing
  • Compares similar topics easily
  • Great for memorizing and comparing facts
  • Fantastic tool for scoping the subject


  • Chart organization can be difficult for new information
  • Requires additional time to create chart
  • Some details may not fit in chart categories

Handwritten vs. Typed Notes

In high school, I mainly hand wrote my notes and in college (for my non-STEM classes), I typically typed my notes. Each has their pros and cons and each have their time and place. When we hand write our notes, our brains uses more neurons and our minds use more effort to record the information which results in higher retention. When we type our notes, our brain and mind uses less energy and we are less likely to remember what we typed. However, typing notes is much faster than writing and we are able to record more information than we would have if we recorded by hand. Typing has a narrow scope when it comes to academic subjects. I wouldn’t recommend typing notes in a math, chemistry, or physics class but typing can do wonders in a social science, history, or humanities course.

When we hand write notes we get a little less effectiveness for efficiency and with typing we get more efficiency for effectiveness. When we hand write our notes, we should take extra precautions to make sure that we aren’t missing valuable or crucial information. When we are typing our notes, we should spend a little extra time going over the material to make sure it really sticks. I recommend using my method of systemic consolidation. It’s efficient, effective, and supported by evidence based theories about learning.

Effectiveness and efficiency aren’t the only trade offs when it comes to handwriting and typing notes. There is also the trade of syntax and meaning. Typing gives us more syntax but less meaning and learning lies in the meaning. This is why we are more inclined to forget new information that we typed. We get more of what our instructor is saying, but we take in less of what they mean. On the flip side, when we’re writing, we get less syntax and more meaning. We aren’t trying to write down every word the instructor says (less syntax); we try to figure out what they mean and quickly record something that can represent it (more meaning). This synthesis step we take when we’re handwriting something is why we remember what we write down better than what we type.

This video does a great job comparing handwritten and typed notes and highlights a few of the points I touched on earlier.

Trace is a pretty cool guy

Nowadays, we can get access to the best of both worlds with pretty low friction. My iPad pro with the Apple Pencil are great for combining the speed and efficiency of computer notes but also gives me the option to draw diagrams and encode information at any given moment. You don’t necessarily need an iPad pro and the Apple Pencil, this can work on any tablet that supports a stylus! I love that we have tech that can further our learning capabilities so easily. Tablets can be a pretty hefty investment, but I highly recommend getting one not only for the note taking purposes but because it can remove the friction to a lot of other productive behaviors like reading. I’m all for investing in things that make doing our ideal habits easier and more fun.

When do you use each method?

When thinking about which method of notes to record in a class, it’s important to consider what kind of class it is. Understanding the class structure will help you answer questions like

Is it better to handwrite these notes or type them?

Should I draw a diagram or just jot down bullet points?

What should my notes look like?

There are two categories classes can fall into, concept based and fact based. Concept based classes are usually the math and physical science type classes where we are expected to learn a concept and apply them broadly over many different situations. The concepts are usually simple to understand but the difficulty comes from being able to apply them in different contexts. Fact based classes are usually the history, social, and life science type classes where we are expected to memorize facts and synthesize an understanding of a bigger picture. The facts usually aren’t difficult to make sense of and the difficulty of these classes typically comes from the high volume of information we are responsible for knowing. From my experiences as a student and tutor, I’ve noticed that the handwritten flow method is best for most concept based classes and typed cornell notes or charting notes are better for fact based classes, but I encourage you to find what works best for you. Note taking takes a while to develop, especially when developing the little adjustments for yourself

Systemic Consolidation & Expansion

Note taking is a useful skill in the world of academics but it isn’t an effective way to review material. Some methods, like the cornell notes, are designed to be used later as an active recall resource but with systemic consolidation, all of your notes can be effective active recall resources. The idea is to shrink down your notes into a smaller space. I don’t mean write smaller, I mean try to capture the same ideas in less physical space. This is useful for a few reasons:

  • it forces you to cut extraneous information
  • it encourages you to develop a special neural pathway to recognize the same information from less cue input
  • you end up being able to recall most of the information in the process

Back in college, my engineering professors allowed us to use one notecard on the test with anything written on it. We could write examples, formulas, concepts, sentences, pictures, anything as long as it fit on a notecard. (As my classes got more difficult, that notecard grew to an entire sheet of paper.) My classmates and I took advantage of this situation and wrote down as much as we could on those little notecards. We weren’t able to literally fit everything, so we had to be smart and intentionally choose what to save in the notecard. This process of separating the wheat from the chaff helped me learn a huge portion of the material and by the time the test came, I rarely had to use my cheat sheets. After discovering this little trick, I periodically consolidated my notes every exam. This not only allowed me to review for my exams effectively and efficiently, but it gave me clear and powerful study resources that came in clutch during finals week. Taking notes alone isn’t an effective study technique, but when its coupled with systematic consolidation, any note-taking method can be made great!

Making things smaller isn’t the only way to use notes effectively. Systemic expansion is a fantastic option to further enhance and deepen our understanding. I like to use this method to make my online content. The main idea is to expand on the knowledge you are trying to understand by incorporating it within a larger creative project. As a tutor, I know when I learn something for the first time there are going to be gaps in my knowledge and if I’m going to be able to disseminate knowledge that will actually help students, then I need to make sure my own knowledge is thorough and accurate. Through systemic expansion, I give myself an opportunity to articulate my thoughts more clearly and examine gaps in my understanding. As much as I’ve rejected the idea, writing is rewriting.

Nerdy Workflow

When I learn something new that I may want to share with someone later I usually take notes in my notes app that comes on my iPhone. This is mainly because of convenience, it’s easy to quickly catch a thought in my notes while I have it. There isn’t anything special about the notes app in particular. Once I get some time to actually think about the idea deeply I organize it in Microsoft OneNote into it’s appropriate notebook. I like OneNote’s notebook-section-pages organizational style, it adds structure to my content. Right now, I have three main notebooks that I split up my interesting ideas into. There are two notebooks geared towards education and building a curriculum that enhances the education of students using the current system in place. One notebook is for my (future) online course and another is for the in-person course. The third notebook I have is a collection of ideas for creativity and the creative process. Each notebook then has their own sections and each section has subsections (pages) that I can use to specifically categorize each bit of information. Each of these ideas is then fleshed out in a blog post! I plan on taking these ideas even further by turning them into youtube videos, lectures, and hopefully books! This process is long, effortful, and difficult but my understanding and knowledge of each idea will grow and be strengthened through every step of the way.

When practicing systemic expansion, you don’t have to expand in these exact steps. Get a feel for how you would like to expand on your ideas. Creating something out of the knowledge that we are trying to learn is the best way to encode information that sticks around for the long run. If you’re interested in maximizing your understanding, periodically consolidate your information but expand on the ideas in a creative project that spans over the medium to long term.

Thoughts on Highlighting

Throw away your highlighters! Highlighting is not an effective use of your time. It’s an example of prioritizing short term over long term. It feels good and productive to highlight things in a textbook, but in order to encode the information in ours heads we would need to reread those sections again instantly doubling our work! The reality is we would probably have to read outside the highlights for context potentially tripling our work. Highlighting is one of those methods that breeds more work and the benefits you do get from highlighting are not worth the time. You are better off using one of the methods mentioned above incorrectly than highlighting.

I suggest finding other methods that work best for you. The methods I listed here are popular and effective but we all know ourselves best. Becoming a great note taker is a personal art and needs to be formed over time, so try different things out and see what works best for you. Remember, making notes is not a reliable form of studying, I recommend practicing systemic consolidation or expansion as a replacement! Taking good notes is a skill and because of that we aren’t going to be pros at it when we first become intentional with our note-taking. It will take us at least 20 hours to learn how to take effective and efficient notes. With learning new skills, there is a transition curve that we follow. So if at first your notes aren’t stellar, keep at it diligently and actively find ways to improve. Over time you’ll become a master and recording information will be second nature, especially after designing a system that works best for you!

The 20 Hour Rule and Metaskills

“The future belongs to those who learn more skills and combine them in creative ways.” 

Robert Greene (1959 – )

A lot of people I talk to are familiar with the 10,000 hour rule – it takes 10,000 hours of dedicated and deliberate practice to obtain mastery of a given skill, but not as many of us are familiar with the 20 hour rule.

According the Josh Kaufman’s The First 20 Hours, it only takes 20 hours of dedicated and deliberate practice to learn a new skill. We don’t need 10,000 to learn something new and learning a new skill doesn’t have to be a huge commitment. 20 hours is all it takes.

Success in any field is simply learning a specific combination of skills. This means that success anywhere is just a few sets of 20 hour intervals. We can fast track our way to stellar performance by deconstructing the things we want to do into their individual skills.

The combination of all of our skills will be our arsenal to solve problems that we encounter through life. Our skills are what we sell to employers and what we implement to impact in the world.


Success is great, but that’s not the best part. Some of the skills you learn in one place can count towards the success in another. I refer to these skills as metaskills. This means that once you learn one thing, learning other things consequently becomes easier.

I noticed this after I became a proficient musician. Some of the skills I developed to become a musician were also necessary for learning other things, like being a good student, tutor, or EMT. Being a good student also helped me become a better music producer. This is because when I was developing myself as I student, I was developing skills like:

  • self-control
  • time management
  • stress management
  • independent thought habits
  • embracing my uniqueness
  • patience
  • problem solving
  • initiative
  • discipline
  • and many more..

Which can all be used in other areas of life. So as I got became a better student, I became a better everything because. Use The 20 Hour rule to develop your metaskills and see how success in one domain is similar to success in another.

Some people say it gets more difficult to learn things as you get older, but I think thats wrong. If we spend our time learning the metaskills, learning new things actually becomes easier over time.

Some other metaskills I’d recommend focusing on are:

  • writing
  • meditation
  • leadership
  • studying
  • critical listening
  • learning to say no
  • decision making (Click here to understand our decision making process more)
  • quantitative reasoning
  • self-awareness
  • creativity
  • resilience
  • scheduling (Click here for tips on developing scheduling)

I try to make a little time every day to develop my metaskills, even if it’s just 5 minutes. 5 minutes every day for a year is 30 hours. How do conquer the world? One skill at a time.

The Mamba Mentality

“To sum up what Mamba Mentality is, it means to be able to constantly try to be the best version of yourself. That is what the Mentality is -it’s a constant quest to try to better today than you were yesterday.”

Kobe Bryant (1978 – 2020)

The Mamba Mentality is a highly effective way of developing your skills. Kobe Bryant, aka Black Mamba, developed this method after his first season playing basketball. The Mamba Mentality is a tested and proven way to bring you from the bottom of the dog pile to the Greatest of All Time.

A trip through time…

When Kobe Bryant was about 10 or 11 he was in a summer basketball league. During this season, he scored a grand total of 0 points for the ENTIRE season. Naturally, he was crushed and his father told him it doesn’t matter if you score 0 or 60 points I’m going to love you either way. This gave Kobe the confidence the needed to confront failure powerfully but he didn’t want to score 0 points. After that season, he spent his days focused on the fundamentals while his teammates relied on their athleticism. Eventually, practicing of the fundamentals caught him up to his teammates and his athleticism followed shortly after. By the age of 14, Kobe was the best basketball player in the state regardless of age.

This sounds like an incredible accomplishment but Kobe says it’s simple math: If you are playing for 2-3 hours every day and everyone around you is playing 1-2 hours twice a week, who’s going to be better? Skill development is not only a function of time, but time is a necessary ingredient.

There are two main pillars of the mamba mentality:

  • Show up and work every day, no matter what.
  • Rest at the end not in the middle

Incremental Consistent Progress

Putting work in every single day, even just for a few hours, is the edge you need over your competition. The sad fact of the matter is, not everyone will be giving their 100%. So, if you are giving your 100%, then you can’t lose. And part of that effort is showing up every. single. day. no. matter. what. By the time a years rolls around, or even 6 months, the results are noticeably different. I’ve seen this idea represented in Jeff Olson’s The Slight Edge and I’ve tried it for myself.

I apply this pillar of the mamba mentality to my learning. I learn something new every single day no matter what. It brings a child-like bliss into my life and I become a better person every day. After a few years, people have no considered me an expert in things that I would never dare claim expertise in. Apply this everywhere and watch the unimaginable unfold.

Restful rest vs. Stressful Rest

The difference between restful rest and stressful rest lies in the second pillar of the Mamba Mentality. Kobe suggests to rest at the end and not in the middle. This can apply to workouts, homework assignments, projects, whatever goal you have with a definite end. When we forstall resting and push all the way to the end, we train ourselves in endurance and tenacity but we also get to rest much more peacefully. When we rest at the end, we know the work is over and we can enjoy the much deserved breakrestful rest. When we rest in the middle, we have to get over the activation energy required to start again (which sucks) but we also can’t rest as peacefully because we are anticipating the stress to begin again – stressful rest.

I’ve applied this to my workouts and I’ve gotten better results than when I was resting whenever I felt tired. Make no mistake, it’s painful to rest at the end but it’s worth it. I’ve also applied this to cleaning my room, writing, making music, working, and tons of other places.

In this interview Kobe beautifully lays out the foundation of the world renowned, Mamba Mentality.

Starts at 2:11

Show up every damn day and just do it. Don’t stop until you accomplish what you set out to do. Apply these two principles and skill development is a piece of cake.